There are many types of periodontal diseases. The following is an overview of the most common:
As the mildest form of the periodontal diseases, gingivitis causes the gums to become red, swollen, and bleed easily. There is usually no discomfort at this stage.
Chronic periodontitis is a condition resulting in inflammation within the soft tissues surrounding the teeth causing progressive attachment and bone loss. It is diagnosed by bone loss on a dental film, the formation of gum pockets and/or receding gums. It is most common in adults, but can occur at any age.
This form occurs in patients who are otherwise in good health. Common features include rapid attachment loss and bone destruction. There are two forms of aggressive periodontitis:
Localized Aggressive Periodontitis – Most often occurs near puberty and usually involves attachment loss around first molars and/or front teeth but may involve one or two additional teeth.
Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis –Usually, but not always affects people under 30 years of age. It involves attachment loss on at least three permanent teeth in addition to first molars and incisors.
PERIODONTITIS AS A MANIFESTATION OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE
As the name indicates, this form is associated with one of several systemic diseases that are related to periodontitis, such as diabetes.
NECROTIZING PERIODONTAL DISEASES
These types of periodontal diseases cause ulcers in the gums between the teeth and are most commonly observed in individuals with certain conditions including, but not limited to, HIV infection, malnutrition and immunosuppression. Stress, smoking, and poor oral hygiene sometimes can contribute to this problem.